Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Time to Kick In (Stem Cells)


Just saw this hours ago, check this out. <3
My senior thesis is perfect

Tomson Tai

Saturday, April 14, 2012

2011 Nobel Prize Winner in Physics

Expounded and verified the hypothetical accelerating expansion of our universe is indeed true based on data collected from observation toward remote supernova. Likewise, the result also indirectly suggested the existence of an unknown energy, "dark energy".
On October 4, 2011, two American scientist Saul Perlmutter and Adam G. Riess with an Australian scientist Brian P. Schmidt received one of the the highest honor in the field of science. 

- Newton:Graphic Science Magazine 3,2012: 5 

Friday, March 23, 2012

Nobel Prize Physics: Verified the Acceleration of Universal Inflation

Main Title: Scientists Say Our Milky Way is Getting Lonelier
by Xiaofan

Hubble space telescope images of three of the most distant supernovae known. By tracking these exploding stars, astronomers can trace the expansion rate of the universe, and determine how it is affected by dark energy

- Adapted from PureInsight.org

Scientists discovered our galaxy is getting more and more separate from other celestial bodies. 

    In the past decades, scientists had made amazing discoveries and confirmation from the expansive universe such as Doppler effect, GammaRayBurst (y-ray burst), all sorts of Supernova explosion, and magnificent celestial collision and reconstruction. Even at this instant, there are countless star collisions or explosions that capable to assemble into new stars. All of these data suggesting our universe is currently undergoes a gigantic change. Nonetheless, the infinitive inflation of the universe remains the most striking phenomenon for the astronomers and scientists. It certainly plays a big role in our galaxy's future...

In February of 2004, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) made an announcement, base on observational data, that the universe inflation rate seems to be accelerating! Scientists further emphasize if the acceleration is not altered; unfortunately, the celestial bodies will inevitably getting more and more desolate from each other.

Some scientists believe that if all the celestial bodies (the universe itself) do depart from us (The Earth) with acceleration, then as time goes by, eventually those stars will achieve superluminality (faster-than-light). If we look up at the night-sky, thence, except stars from our own galaxy, The Milky Way, we will not able to perceive any starry starry nights...just a piece of horrifying darkness.
    Edwin Hobble was the first person to discover the acceleration of universal acceleration.

As early as 1929, American astronomer Edwin Hobble had made a primordial historical discovery after conduct vast amount of telescopic observation. He discovered that most of the stars outside of our galaxy is moving away; moreover, they are in fact accelerating. The phenomenon is now named the "Hobble's Law"

"Hubble's law (LemaĆ®tre's Law) is the name for the astronomical observation in physical cosmology that: (1) all objects observed in deep space (interstellar space) are found to have a doppler shift observable relative velocity to Earth, and to each other; and (2) that this doppler-shift-measured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is proportional to their distance from the Earth and all other interstellar bodies."                                                        
- Wikipedia.org

    Hobble's Discovery of Doppler Effect

It is from his discovery of Doppler Effect lead Edwin Hobble concluded the universe is expanding. It is an electromagnetic spectrum phenomenon which occurs when the wavelength of the light emitted from departing celestial body is elongated. From spectroscopic study, different wavelength will correspond different color. The wavelength elongates; the color shifts toward the red side.

The electromagnetic spectrum absorption graph indicates most of celestial bodies far away from us are commonly shifted red. Furthermore, as the distance increases; the phenomenon aggravates even more, suggesting higher departing velocity. Subsequently, Hobble Law demonstrate to us: "The universe is accelerating"

Using modern advance telescopes, astronomers have already capable of perceive galaxies located 10 billion years away. However, the collected data still indicates even these galaxies are still accelerating away from us.

Although Hobble's discovery didn't draw attention worldwide in the 1930s; nonetheless, evidences like scientific experiments and observations grow increasingly to support Hobble's conclusion. Therefore, to honor his prominent contribution in astronomy and physics, the flagship telescope of the world, "Hobble" Telescope, is named after him.

Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO)
located on Space Shuttle Columbiamission STS-93 (Wikipedia.org)
    The Presence of Dark Energy

Base on popular Big Bang Theory and Newtonian physics, the universe is suppose to shrink due to the gravitational attraction between the celestial bodies. However, this doesn't happen in reality. In contrast, scientists are confuse by the fact that the universe is rather hastening its inflation rate.

As a result, scientists brought a new concept trying to explain this contra-intuitive phenomenon: There is an unknown and mysterious energy that pushes the inflation of the universe. However, scientists can't really detect this elusive energy, so they named it "Dark Energy".

In February 2008, astronomers finally obtained the first direct evidence suggesting dark energy's influence in universe's everlasting expansion. Using Chandra X-ray Observatory (known as CXO) in NASA, scientists in the research team have successfully recorded the "dark energy effect" occurred during the collision of two gigantic galaxies which verifies the existence of the theoretical energy. Or is it?
Initially, the "dark energy" only took a microscopic part of the universe. However, as the non-stopping universal expansion dilutes the concentration of the conventional matters and energies, this invisible energy propagates. Thus, it has now occupied a substantial portion of the universal composition, in fact over 70%. Some scientists also predict that, perhaps apocryphal, as dark energy continues its propagation, our universe will eventually "die" in the future as it colds down and becomes motionless in complete darkness. And even the atoms, as the space-time curvature drastically twisted from the vicious energy, will not escape the fate of being torn apart.

Multiple scientists received Noble Prize of Physics through significant contributions verifying the acceleration of universal inflation rate as well as verifying the existence of dark energy.
(See Article: 2011 Nobel Prize Winner in Physics)


Monday, March 19, 2012

New Reusable Fluorescence Molecule Display Different Colors After Rubbing

Scientists have manufactured a revolutionary fluorescence molecule capable of change into liquid crystals (LC) with three different fluorescence colors.
- adapted from Angeandte Chemie 9/19/2011

    Fluorescence molecules are able to emit light (fluorescent light) when exposed under stimulants such as ultra-violet radiation. To the present, there are several known fluorescence molecule which are able to change into LC. However, we are still unable to display multiple colors from one fluorescence alone. 
    Professor Takashi Kato from University of Tokyo and his research team recently manufactured an innovative fluorescence molecule which can transform into red, green, and yellow organic LC. Professor Kato said that when the nano size fluorescence particles experienced external physical forces or friction, then the particles are heated. Thus, the molecular shape will self-rearranged according to the temperature. So when the same fluorescence molecule experience ultra-violet radiation, a new fluorescence color is emitted.
    Even though the fluorescence color usually remains in red color in room temperature; however, some spots  display yellow fluorescence when rubbing produces sufficient heat. And when the temperature raises to 90 degree Celsius, the rubbed spots will radiate green light. However, the fascinating part of this new invention is its reusable ability. After cooled down from 145 degree Celsius, the fluorescence molecules are self-rearrange back to its original state, continue illuminating red light. 
    Fluorescent LC not only able to be used to build TV screen but also able to contribute in thermal and physical detection. In addition, professors believe that the new fluorescence LC is relativity easier to manufacture. This means that the invention could be consider as a cross period advancement. 

Picture of Liquid Crystals and Its Color Change Effect


More info: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/110791970/Liquid-crystal-with-3-color-switch

By T.K

The Viviparous Animal from 88.5 Million Years Ago

Plesiosaurus Only Gives One Birth in Each Pregnancy
- adapted from Science 8/12/2012
    During the Mesozoic Era (250million - 65 million years ago) when dinosaurs still dominate the entire planet with great diversity and population, there was a marine reptilian animal resemble our modern dolphins - Ichthyosarurs. Ichthyosarurs is not oviparous animal; in fact, it is considered as viviparous animal which gives birth of mature child directly. However, the question of whether plesiosaurus, sharing habitats with the Ichthyosarurs, fit in oviparous or viviparous is still a mystery for scientists.   
    Doctor D.R. O'Keefe and his research team from Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia, recently discovered fossils of Plesiosaurus from Kansas's stratum of late-Cretaceous Era. Astonishing, one of the fossils they found contain a pregnant female Plesiosaurus with its fetus. Compare the height to mother's 4.7 m, the fetus measured about 1.5 m! This proportion of sizes is very abnormal for oviparous species; therefore, strongly suggesting the viviparous theory. 
    Furthermore, this also indicates that Plesiosarurus perhaps are extreme iteroparity like our modern whales and dolphins, produce only one offspring a time. 
    Doctor O'Keefe also believe that Plesiosaurus is fundamentally different than Ichthyosarurs despite both of them are viviparous and share similar habitats. Different from semelparitric Ichthyosarurs, produce lots of offspring a time, Plesiosaurus is very likely to share the same poignant maternity with whales: treat their next generation with great care.  

By T.K


Main Title: Innovative Nano-Particle Purification System Uses Magnetic Fields

"Nano- olives" are made up of an iron oxide "olive" with an iron and platinum "pimento." Together the components make a highly magnetic particle structure, which may one day be useful for data storage in computers. Credit: The Schaak/Williams research groups, Penn State..

Nanoparticles, smaller than dusts, are invisible yet essential in our daily life. One interesting fact that makes scientists so crazy about them is their unique characteristics result from its “titled” size – nano(10^-9). For example, the compound zinc oxide in a molecular (bulk) stage has a good property of blocking UV radiation; however, its’ nanoparticle stage has an even better UV blocking ability. Nanoparticles behave in such a different way than its bulk state is because of charges. As the molecules are separated into smaller units, small differences of charges matters more which results different properties than their bulk state molecule. In addition, it is significantly for scientists to purify contaminated nanoparticles (unused) from pure nanoparticles scientists target on.

2011 Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology and Medicine

Identified two new mechanisms involve within the activation of human innate immune system against pathogenic infections. Thus share significant contribution in developing innovative therapy as well as deepen the understanding of abnormal auto-aggressive diseases. 
- Newton:Graphic Science Magazine 3,2012: 5